November 30, 2018

Miracles of the Apostle Andrew from the Sixth Century

Saint Gregory of Tours, in his late-6th century book titled Glory of the Martyrs (ch. 30), records the following miracles of the Apostle Andrew:

After the glorious reception of Andrew [in Paradise] many miracles are said to have been revealed either at his tomb or in various places where his relics are located. I do not think it inappropriate to relate a few of these miracles, because the edification of the Church is found in the glory of martyrs and the power of saints.

Saint Andrew Saguna, Metropolitan of Transylvania (+ 1873)

St. Andrew Saguna (Feast Day - November 30)

Saint Andrew (or Andrei) was Aromanian in origin, or what the Greeks would call a Vlach, and his parents Naum and Anastasia were from Grabova in Albania. Due to commercial interests, they settled in Miskolc, Hungary. Saint Andrew was born here, the youngest of three children, on 20 December 1808, and was baptized with the name Anastasios.

With the guidance of local Jesuits, Naum had opted for the family to convert to Roman Catholicism, seeking to obtain a better status than the second-class one reserved for most Eastern Orthodox subjects of the Habsburgs. However, the Sagunas, at the prompting of Anastasia, continued to be Orthodox in secret - the future Metropolitan and his two siblings were probably never practicing Catholic.

Saint Vakhtang Gorgasali, King of Georgia (+ 502)

St. Vakhtang of Iberia (Feast Day - November 30)

The holy and right-believing king Vakhtang I ascended the throne of Kartli at the age of fifteen. At that time Kartli was continually being invaded by the Persians from the south and by the Ossetians from the north. The situation was no better in western Georgia: the Romans had captured all the lands from Egrisi to Tsikhegoji.

After his coronation, the young King Vakhtang summoned his court and addressed his dedicated servants with great wisdom. He said that the sorrowful circumstances in which the nation had found itself were a manifestation of God’s anger at the sins of the king and the people. He called upon everyone to struggle in unity and selflessness on behalf of the Faith and motherland.

Saint Tudwal, Bishop of Treguier (+ 564)

St. Tudwal (Feast Day - November 30)

Saint Tudwal, or Tugdual, is known as one of the Seven Patron Saints of Brittany. The Welsh monk Tudwal was one of the sons of King Hoel I Mawr (the Great). He traveled to Ireland from his father's home in Britain to learn the scriptures before becoming a hermit on Ynys Tudwal (St. Tudwal's Isle East) off the Lleyn Peninsula in North Wales. He later immigrated to Leon in Brittany and settled at Lan Pabu with some seventy-two followers. Here he established a large monastery under the patronage of his cousin, King Deroch of Domnonee.

November 29, 2018

Holy Martyr Phaidros

St. Phaidros the Martyr (Feast Day - November 29)


Among other things you went to the hot resin,
We came to know you alone Phaidros as a firm contestant.

The Holy Martyr Phaidros met his end after hot resin was poured over him.

Holy Martyr Valerin

St. Valerin the Martyr (Feast Day - November 29)


For an all honorable crown I bear the sword,
The Martyr Valerin cried out.

The Holy Martyr Valerin, who in some manuscripts is known as Valerian, met his end by the sword.

Venerable Pankosmios

St. Pankosmios the Ascetic (Feast Day - November 29)


The entire world was nothing to Pankosmios,
He was raised to Eden and the mansion, he received.

Venerable Pankosmios met his end in peace.

Saint Urban, Bishop of Macedonia


Upon expiring Urban was in the hands of the Angels,
Who lived his life according to the Angels.

Saint Urban, Bishop of Macedonia, met his end in peace.

Holy Six Martyrs

Holy Six Martyrs (Feast Day - November 29)


A rock opened and became a tomb for six men,
The dead found in the tomb Christ the rock.

The Holy Six Martyrs met their end by a rock opening up and receiving them as they were being chased by their persecutors.

Holy Hieromartyr John of Persia

St. John of Persia (Feast Day - November 29)


And John the sacrificer of Christ,
Had his wages counted making him rich.

This is probably the same Hieromartyr John the Bishop commemorated with James the Presbyter on November 1st. They suffered torture and martyrdom by beheading in fourth century Persia under King Shapur, after having converted many to the faith of Christ.

Venerable Nicholas, Archbishop of Thessaloniki

St. Nicholas of Thessaloniki (Feast Day - November 29)


Nicholas cared for his people,
Victoriously persuading and guiding towards their purpose.

Venerable Nicholas, Archbishop of Thessaloniki, met his end in peace.

November 28, 2018

Synaxarion of the Holy Fifteen Martyrs of Tiberiopolis (+ 361)

On this day, the 28th of November, we commemorate the Holy Martyrs Timothy and Theodore the Bishops; Peter, John, Sergius, Theodore and Nikephoros the Priests; Basil and Thomas the Deacons; Hierotheos, Daniel, Chariton, Socrates, Komasios and Eusebius the Monks; with Etimasios, who all met their end by the sword.


To the two Bishops.
Timothy together with Theodore,
Were seen to be exceedingly honorable gifts to God.

To the five Priests.
Beforehand they sacrificed a most pure sacrifice,
Afterwards they were observed becoming the sacrifices.

To the two Deacons.
Wherever Christ is, as he says,
The contestants stand nearby serving.

To the six Monks.
The six monks were cut asunder by the sword,
Now they stand together with the six-winged intelligences.

To Etimasios.
Deprived of the first syllable blessed one,
Stands your calling, for you have honor above.

(The following is an English translation of the Greek translation and summary of Saint Nikodemos the Hagiorite from the original text of Saint Theophylact of Ochrid.)

November 27, 2018

Saint James the Wonderworker, Bishop of Rostov (+ 1392)

St. James of Rostov (Feast Day - November 27)

According to a local tradition, Saint James received monastic tonsure at Kopyrsk Monastery on the River Ukhtoma, 80 kilometers from Rostov. For a long time he was abbot of this monastery, and in the year 1385 he was made Bishop of Rostov when Pimen was Metropolitan and Demetrius of the Don was Great Prince.

In defending a woman condemned to execution, the Saint followed the example of the Savior, inviting whoever considered himself to be without sin to cast the first stone at her (John 8:7), and he then sent the woman forth to repentance. The Prince and the Rostov nobles, disgruntled over the bishop’s judgment, threw Saint James out of Rostov.

November 26, 2018

Saint Paisios the Athonite and the Clairvoyant Eldress Eulambia Romanides

Fr. John Romanides was born to pious parents from Cappadocia in Asia Minor, who during the population exchange of 1922 went to Piraeus, where he was born on 2 March 1927. When he was 72 days old, on 15 May 1927, he emigrated with his parents to America, where they settled in Manhattan. There his father Savvas worked as a tailor and his mother Eulambia was a housewife who helped her husband. Fr. John also had a sister named Parthenia, and in the house they spoke Turkish instead of Greek, since in Cappadocia the Greeks spoke Turkish.

Eulambia however was also an ascetic living in the midst of the city, for she brought with her the Cappadocian piety she learned in her homeland. This ascetic mentality was also taught to her son, who would later recall her saying to him as a child: "My child, one does not become a saint by force. It is something you must want!" When he explained these words of his mother, he wrote: "Of course someone cannot become a saint by force, but each of us must choose the path of ascetic therapy."

Venerable Silos, Bishop of Persia

St. Silos of Persia (Feast Day - November 26)


You departed Father from the earth and the earthly,
Now you dwell in heaven blessed Silos.

We have no information about the Venerable Silos, Bishop of Persia.

Commemoration of the Consecration of the Church of Saint George in Kyparission

Sketch of the church from 1877.

On November 11th the Orthodox Church commemorates the Church of Saint George in Kyparission. According to the Patmian Codex 266, the consecration of this church took place on April 24th. It is not known in what year this took place.

The Church of Saint George in Kyparission was located in the Psamatheia quarter of Constantinople, otherwise known as Ypsomatheion, and which today is called Samatya, located along the Marmara Sea, in the southwestern side of Constantinople. In 383, the first monastic institution was established in Constantinople, at Psamatheia, at that time still outside the walled city.

November 25, 2018

Did Eusebius Write About Saint Katherine in the Early Fourth Century?

The information we have about Saint Katherine of Alexandria primarily comes from sources dating from the tenth and eleventh centuries, such as the Menologion of Basil II, the Synaxarion of Constantinople, and the detailed Life written by Symeon Metaphrastes. But there is another possible source that dates much closer to her time, within a generation in fact, written around the year 320 by Eusebius, in his Ecclesiastical History (Bk. 8, Ch. 14). There he writes about how Emperor Maximinus II (308-313), who seized high-born women for licentious and adulterous purposes during the time he persecuted Christians in the East, attempted the same while visiting the city of Alexandria. Eusebius records the following:

Holy Six Hundred and Seventy Martyrs

Holy 670 Martyrs (Feast Day - November 25)


Twenty times three times ten men were decapitated,
With another seven times ten men.

The Holy Six Hundred and Seventy Martyrs met their end by the sword.

November 24, 2018

Venerable Mark of Trigleia

St. Mark of Trigleia (Feast Day - November 24)


Mark excelled as steadfast to God the Word,
He departed and clearly sees him.

Venerable Mark was from Trigleia (Tirilye) in Bythinia, and probably lived in asceticism in one of the four monastic centers there.

Holy Martyr Chrysygonos at Aquileia


For November 24.

Chrysogonos appeared as a golden child,
Manifested by God the Father he was decapitated by the sword.

For December 22.

Chrysogonos gave his neck to the sword,
O golden spirit your strength is like brass.

Saint Chrysogonos was the teacher of the Great Martyr Saint Anastasia. When Diocletian learned that the prisons of Rome were overcrowded with Christians who resisted torture, he ordered them all to be killed in a single night, and for Chrysogonos to be sent to him at Aquileia. Saint Anastasia followed her teacher at a distance.

Saint Gregory of Chryse Petra Monastery

St. Gregory of Chryse Petra (Feast Day - November 24)


Gregory had Asia as his homeland,
His virtues shined like the sunrise.

Venerable Gregory came from the East and lived in asceticism at the Monastery of Chryse Petra, which is on the border between Pontus and Paphlogonia, close to Ameseia. Chryse Petra, which in Greek means "Golden Rock", was dedicated to the Prophet Elias. Saint Nikodemos the Hagiorite informs us that in his time, he received information from witnesses that Saint Gregory's relics were discovered in the Monastery of Chryse Petra.

Holy Martyr Alexander of Corinth

St. Alexander of Corinth (Feast Day - November 24)


Pious-minded Alexander contested,
Clearly representing, how a friend of Christ ought to be.

The Holy Martyr Alexander of Corinth contested unto death for the faith of Christ, under Julian the Apostate and the governor Sallust, in the year 360.

Holy Martyrs Prokopios and Christopher

Sts. Prokopios and Christopher (Feast Day - November 24)


Prokopios, as I Christopher,
Hastened to be cut at the neck.

The Holy Martyrs Prokopios and Christopher met their end by the sword.

Holy Martyr Eugenios

St. Eugenios the Martyr (November 24)


In vain is the hole shut with clay,
For Eugenios is on the path to God.

The Holy Martyr Eugenios met his end by being thrown into an opening of a wall, the entrance of which was sealed with clay.

Holy Martyrs Philoumenos and Christopher

Sts. Philoumenos and Christopher (Feast Day - November 24)


Philoumenos and Christopher were decapitated,
Truly appearing to be friends of Christ.

The Holy Martyrs Philoumenos and Christopher met their end by the sword.

Saint Hermogenes, Bishop of Agrigentum

St. Hermogenes of Agrigentum (Feast Day - November 24)


Hermogenes was carried away from the human race,
Having put to shame the insolence of the demonic race.

Saint Hermogenes, Bishop of Agrigentum, reposed in peace in the early ninth century.

Saint Malchus

St. Malchus (Feast Day - November 24)


The psychopomp spirits flew down,
And carried away the soul of Malchus to his Lord.

Saint Malchus met his end in peace.

November 23, 2018

Narration of the Vision of a Certain John Which is Altogether Beneficial

Narration of the Vision of a Certain John Which is Altogether Beneficial

(To be read on November 23rd)


In his sleep he beheld with his soul the fearsome Judge,
Rather fear came, with what was seen while awake.

A man received a divine warning during the reign of Emperor Constantine the Great, in the year 330, whose name was John, who was known to the emperor through the craft he was employed in. Originally he lived a wicked and unseemly life, without ever considering that there is a hell. But God, who always sees well towards our benefit, appeared to him in a vision, and corrected his conduct.

Saint Metrophanes, Bishop of Voronezh (+ 1703)

St. Metrophanes of Voronezh (Feast Day - November 23)

Saint Metrophanes, Bishop of Voronezh, in the world Michael, was born November 8, 1623. Since the Saint’s book of commemorations begins with persons of priestly rank, it is assumed that he was born into a priestly family. We know from Saint Metrophanes’ will that he “was born of pious parents and was raised by them in the incorrupt piety of the Eastern Church, in the Orthodox faith.”

Saint Elenos, Bishop of Tarsus

St. Elenos of Tarsus (Feast Day - November 23)


Elenos the president of Tarsus performed sacrifices,
Sending up the souls of Tarsians to the heavens.

Saint Elenos was the Bishop of Tarsus in Cilicia in the middle of the third century. Bishop Dionysios of Alexandria informs us that Pope Stephen I did not accept communion with Bishop Elenos because he was aligned with Bishop Cyprian of Carthage. Stephen held that converts who had been baptized by heretics did not need rebaptism, while Cyprian and certain bishops of the Roman province of Africa held the rebaptism of heretics necessary for admission to the Eucharist. In his time Elenos had to confront Novationist groups who did not allow for the readmittance of the lapsed Christians that succumbed to sacrificing to the idols during the Decian and Valerian persecution. Moreover, Eleno’s name appears in two Synods held in Antioch (264 and 272), where the city’s bishop, Paul of Samosata, who was a Monarchianist, was condemned and deposed. In the second Synod, Elenos was elected president. He reposed in peace.

Saint Ischyrion the Bishop

St. Ischyrion the Bishop (Feast Day - November 23)


Ischyrion lived as one mighty in the Church,
Who though dead noetically strengthens.

Saint Ischyrion the Bishop met his end in peace. Some sources have him as a Bishop of Tarsus. Others regard him as the Holy Abba of Egypt of whom the following saying is attributed:

November 22, 2018

Life of Saint Clement of Ochrid (St. Theophylact of Ochrid)

Below is the life of Saint Clement of Ochrid by Saint Theophylact of Ochrid. Right-click on each page to enlarge.

Holy Martyr Menignos the Fuller

St. Menignos the Fuller (Feast Day - November 22)


The head of Menignos the Fuller was cut off by the sword,
You were like a cloth. Although filthy, you were washed.

Saint Menignos was a fuller by trade from Parium, a Greek city of Adrasteia in Mysia on the Hellespont, and lived during the reign of Emperor Decius (249-251). When a royal decree was issued forbidding Christianity in the Roman Empire, many Christians were apprehended in Parium where they were imprisoned in a dark jail and placed in stocks. One night they prayed to our Lord Jesus Christ that they may be freed from the dark prison and their bonds, then suddenly a bright light appeared, they were loosed from their bonds, and they were able to escape from prison. This miracle soon became known to the pagans, who were amazed by what happened. When Menignos heard about this miracle, he became inflamed with divine love and faith and the zeal for martyrdom.

Holy Martyr Agapios

St. Agapios the Martyr (Feast Day - November 22)


Just as God stretched out on the place of the skull,
You stretched forth your skull to the sword Agapios.

The Holy Martyr Agapios met his end by the sword. Parisian Codex 1578 records that he was from Cappadocia.

Holy Martyr Agapion

St. Agapion the Roman (Feast Day - November 22)


Agapion departed having not been harmed by the wild beasts,
Even wild animals regarded him with affection.

The Holy Martyr Agapion met his end, after having confessed Christ as the true God, and he was delivered over to be devoured by wild beasts, but miraculously he remained unharmed by them. Some sources call him Agapion the Roman.

Holy Martyr Thaddeus

St. Thaddeus the Martyr (Feast Day - November 22)


The wheel of Thaddeus turns towards a downward slope,
With a voice of thunder from the wheel he says psalms.

The Holy Martyr Thaddeus met his end by being tied to a wheel and being left on a downward slope.

November 21, 2018

How the West Came to Celebrate the Feast of the Presentation of the Virgin Mary

Detail from The Presentation of the Virgin Mary by Titian
(1534-38, Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice).

The Feast of the Entrance of the Theotokos was officially celebrated in Constantinople by the ninth century. By the fourteenth century, the Eastern Orthodox Churches were universally celebrating the Feast of the Entrance of the Theotokos into the Temple as one of its Twelve Great Feasts on November 21st. In the West, it was only celebrated in the Greek-speaking monasteries of Southern Italy since the ninth century.

On the Entrance of the Theotokos into the Temple (St. Gregory of Nyssa)

By St. Gregory of Nyssa

Now, provided we do not digress too far from our subject, it is perhaps not inopportune to adduce Zacharias, who was slain between the temple and the altar, as a witness to the incorruption of the Mother of God. This Zacharias was a priest; and not only was he a priest, but he was also endowed with the gift of prophecy, his power of prophecy being declared expressly in the Book of the Gospel. When the Grace of God was preparing the way for men not to think that birth from a Virgin is incredible, it set the stage for the assent of unbelievers by means of lesser miracles: a child was born of a barren woman advanced in years. This was a prelude to the miracle of the Virgin Birth. For, just as Elizabeth became a mother not by the power of nature—for she had grown old in barrenness—but the birth of her child is ascribed to the Will of God; so also, the incredibility of a virginal parturition gains credibility with reference to the Divine.

November 20, 2018

Saint Edmund, King of East Anglia (+ 869)

St. Edmund the King of East Anglia (Feast Day - November 20)

Saint Edmund was born in 841. Early accounts and stories provide a cloud over who is his father. The sources considered the most reliable represent Edmund as descended from the preceding kings of East Anglia. When King Ethelweard died in 854, it was Edmund, while only fourteen years old, who succeeded to the throne.

Saint Diodorus of Yuriev (+ 1633)

St. Diodorus of Yuriev (Feast Day - November 20)

Venerable Diodorus of Yuriev was born in the village of Turchasovo at the River Onega. His parents, Hierotheos and Maria, named their son Diomede. As a fifteen-year-old youth, he went on pilgrimage to the Solovki Monastery, and feeling called to the monastic life, he remained there as a novice and never returned home. There he received monastic tonsur when he was nineteen under the abbot Anthony. Abbot Anthony then handed him over to the priest Joseph to be his spiritual guide. When his father became older and was near death, he also was tonsured a monk, and Diodorus buried both his parents.

Synaxarion of the Holy Martyrs Eustathios, Thespesios and Anatolios

Sts. Eustathios, Thespesios and Anatolios (Feast Day - November 20)


Those in error cut off the heads of the three while dead,
Not showing the dead pity, O the error!

They lived during the reign of Emperor Maximian (286-305), having as their homeland the city of Gangra, in the province of Galatia. Their parents were pagan Greeks, whose names were Philotheos and Eusebia; their father was from the land of the Galatians, and their mother was from Nicomedia. Eustathios occupied himself with his studies, while Thespesios and Anatolios took up the occupation of their father, which was the selling of clothes. Their father Philotheos, coming one day from the East to Nicomedia together with Anatolios, was taught about the faith of Christ by their fellow traveler Lucian the Presbyter and teacher (Oct. 25). Having persuaded his son also to his teachings, they believed in Christ and were baptized. When Eustathios and Thespesios were going to Nicomedia, they met the blessed Bishop Anthimos of Nicomedia (Sept. 3). Having been taught the faith of Christ by him, they also were baptized. Later their father Philotheos was ordained a Presbyter, and Eustathios was ordained a Deacon.

November 19, 2018

Saint Hilarion the Georgian (+ 875)

St. Hilarion the Georgian (Feast Day - November 19)

Saint Hilarion the Georgian was the son of a Kakheti aristocrat. There were other children in the family, but only Hilarion was dedicated to God from his very birth. Hilarion’s father built a monastery on his own land, and there the boy was raised.

At the age of fourteen Hilarion left the monastery and his father’s guardianship and settled in a small cave in the Davit-Gareji Wilderness. There he remained for ten years.

Soon report spread through all of eastern Georgia of the angelic faster and tireless intercessor in prayer. Crowds flocked to his cave to receive instruction, blessings, and counsel. When the bishop of Rustavi came to visit Hilarion, he ordained him a priest. Soon he was made abbot of Saint Davit of Gareji Lavra.

Saint Barlaam, Abbot of the Kiev Caves (+ 1065)

St. Barlaam of the Kiev Caves (Feast Day - November 19)

Venerable Barlaam, Abbot of the Kiev Caves, lived during the eleventh century at Kiev, and was the son of one of the boyars of Prince Iziaslav I of Kiev (1045–1052). From his youth, he yearned for the monastic life and he went to Saint Anthony of the Kiev Caves (July 10), who accepted the pious youth so firmly determined to become a monk, and he bade Saint Nikon (March 23) to tonsure him.

Synaxarion of the Holy Martyr Heliodoros of Magydus

St. Heliodoros of Magydus (Feast Day - November 19)


Heliodoros beheld Christ as the Sun,
Above shining light on the darkness of the torments.

In the reign of the Emperor Aurelian, who governed the city of Magydus in the year 272, the blessed Heliodoros could be found in this city, boldly preaching Christ, and for this he was apprehended and brought to the governor. Standing before him, he heard many flatteries, and because he could not be persuaded to sacrifice to the idols, he was suspended and scraped, then burnt with lit torches. Because the sharpness of the torments passed through the heart of the Saint, he said, "Lord Jesus Christ, help me." Immediately a voice from heaven was heard saying, "Do not be afraid, for I am with you." When those who held the torches heard this voice, they also beheld four Angels preventing them from punishing the Saint. This caused them to believe in the Lord, and they rebuked and shamed the governor. For this they were thrown into the sea, and received from the Lord crowns of martyrdom.

Holy Martyrs Anthimos, Thallelaios, Christopher, Euphemia with their Children and the Holy Martyr Pancharios


For November 19.

Receive five athletes O Christ and give,
Five crowns, as a prize for the contest.

For November 22.

To Christopher and Euphemia.
Together with Euphemia you are praised,
Having been slaughtered together Christ-minded Christopher.

To Thallelaios and Anthimos.
Thallelaios and Anthimos were decapitated,
Blossoming evergreens as divine wood.

Holy Martyr Agapios of Caesarea

St. Agapios the Martyr (Feast Day - November 19 and August 19)


Although Agapios was torn apart by wild beasts,
His faith was unshaken in you O Word.

The History of the Martyrs in Palestine

By Eusebius of Caesarea

The Confession of Agapios

In the Fourth Year of the Persecution of our Days (A.D. 306).

It was in the fourth year of the persecution in our days, and on Friday the twentieth of the latter Teshri:* it was on this same day that the chief of tyrants, Maximinus, came to the city of Caesarea. And he made a boast that he would exhibit some novel sight to all the spectators that were assembled together on his account; for that was the same day on which he celebrated the anniversary of his birthday. And it was requisite upon the arrival of the tyrant that he should exhibit something more than what had ordinarily been done. What then was this new spectacle, but that a martyr of God should be cast to wild beasts to be devoured by them. While of old it had been the practice upon the arrival of the emperor that he should set before the spectators competitive exhibitions of various forms and different kinds, such as recitation of speeches, and listening to new and strange songs and music, and also spectacles of all sorts of wild beasts, and likewise that the spectators might have much delight and amusement in a show of gladiators.

November 17, 2018

Saint John the Dermokaitis

St. John the Dermokaitis (Feast Day - November 27)

The memory of Saint John the Dermokaitis ("the Branded") is preserved in the Synaxarion of Delahaye, noting that he was an ascetic on Mount Olympos in Bithynia. He may be the same individual as John the Monk, who was known for the sanctity of his life, under Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos (919-944). Emperor Romanos sent a sealed epistle to this John the Monk, containing a confession of his sins.

Theophanes Continuatus reports that when Emperor Romanos was in exile on the Prince's Islands, having been deposed by his own sons, he had a dream in which he was dragged naked by two eunuchs to an enormous fire tended by a great number of demons, which occupied the entire Tzykanisterion, the imperial polo court at the palace. Two other people - one of Romanos' sons and the Bishop of Herakleia - were thrown in and burned, and the next day the emperor learned that they had both been put to death at the very time of his dream. Romanos was saved at the last moment in his dream by the Mother of God who appeared suddenly, stopped the eunuchs, asking them to be merciful, and clothed the terrified naked emperor.

Venerable Justin

Venerable Justin (Feast Day - November 17)


Asceticially vigilant he shut his eyes,
Justin the wonder of ascetics.

Venerable Justin met his end in peace. Nothing else is known of him.

It should be noted that in the Ethiopian Synaxarion for August 11th, a Justin is commemorated who is said to have dwelt on the top of a mountain and learned by heart the Psalms and the Books of the Prophets and Apostles. Whether this is the same Justin as the one commemorated today is not known.